Familial Forms of Cushing Syndrome in Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease Presenting with Short Stature and Insidious Symptoms: A Clinical Series.

Authors

Navarro Moreno C1, Delestienne A1, Marbaix E2, Aydin S2, Hörtnagel K3, Lechner S3, Sznajer Y4, Beauloye V1, Maiter D5, Lysy PA1.
  1. Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Cliniques universitaires Saint Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
  2. Pathology Department, Cliniques universitaires Saint Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
  3. CeGat GmbH, Tübingen, Germany.
  4. Centrefor Human Genetics, Cliniques universitaires Saint Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
  5. Endocrinology Unit, Cliniques universitaires Saint Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Abstract

Cushing syndrome (CS) is a rare disease in children, frequently associated with subtle or periodic symptoms that may delay its diagnosis. Weight gain and growth failure, the hallmarks of hypercortisolism in pediatrics, may be inconsistent, especially in ACTH-independent forms of CS. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is the rarest form of ACTH-independent CS, and can be associated with endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, forming the Carney complex (CNC). Recently, phenotype/genotype correlations have been described with particular forms of CNC where PPNAD is isolated or associated only with skin lesions. We present four familial series of CS due to isolated PPNAD, and compare them to available data from the literature. We discuss the clinical and molecular findings, and underline challenges in diagnosing PPNAD in childhood.