To investigate a very rare case of hypotrichosis with cone-rod dystrophy caused by a P-cadherin CDH3 mutation.
A 16-year-old Syrian girl was examined at age 9 and 14 years with an ophthalmological examination, fundus imaging, OCT and electrophysiological recordings (ERG and PERG). A disease-targeted gene panel sequencing was performed.
Fundus images showed pigmentations at the posterior eye pole to the mid periphery, as well as vessel tortuosity. OCT images revealed a loss of the outer retinal segments and IS/OS in the central macula. The scotopic and photopic ERGs showed moderately reduced amplitudes at age 9 years that became severely reduced at age of 14 years. The PERG was undetectable at age 9 years. In color vision testing, protan-deutan confusion errors occurred. Gene panel analysis revealed one homozygous mutation in CDH3 (c.1508G>A; p.Arg503His).
This case shows that a CDH3 mutation besides macula dystrophy can cause widespread cone-rod dystrophy with hypotrichosis without any other pathology besides hypoplastic nails. This points to a common pathway of hair growth and photoreceptor development that can be disturbed by a CDH3 mutation (c.1508G>A; p.Arg503His) located in the EC4 repeat region of the gene.