Pharmacogenetics

Pharmacogenetics refers to genetic variations that can influence an individual‘s response to a given pharmaceutical. Genetic variations can cause changes in proteins involved in drug metabolism. This may have significant effects on the efficacy and tolerability of drugs. Genes that encode proteins involved in regulating the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of drugs in humans are called ADME genes.

Characterization of the ADME properties of potential drugs is highly relevant for drug development because substances that have favorable ADME features have a greater chance of entering the market. Although pharmacogenetics is a relatively new field, it has shown promise as being a potential solution for failed clinical trials and long, expensive hospital stays that can occur when a patient is administered incorrect or incompatible medications. Advances in this field are enabling much more precise selection of the best medication at the optimal dosage for the individual patient. This is helping to lead us away from the “one size fits all” approach and toward a more personalized approach to medicine.

ADME research and development

Currently we’re redesigning the ADME Panel. Please contact services@cegat.de for more information. Thank you for your understanding.

Technological information

Technological information
  • 340 ADME genes sequenced (4,227 exons; 1.17 Mb target region)
  • Sequencing platform – HiSeq Illumina platform
  • 30-time coverage > 98% of target regions
  • Validation (PDF)
Applications of the ADME Panel

The ADME research panel offers the possibility to identify both previously studied SNPs, as well as rare and unknown genetic variants and biomarkers that affect the individual’s drug metabolism. The exploration of previously undiscovered genetic variants will help further the understanding of the ADME properties of drugs. Thus, it’s possible to not only stratify patients according to their metabolic profile in clinical studies but also to provide an efficient and reliable tool for the characterization of new drug candidates. Compared to conventional SNP arrays, CeGaT’s ADME Panel sequences and analyzes the entire coding region of all 340 ADME genes. The advantage of this approach is that the comprehensive sequencing data can be re-opened and re-evaluated as we learn more about the genes that affect drug metabolism.

We offer complete sequencing of all coding regions and selected 5 ‘UTRs of the ADME genes (shown below).

ADME Panel – gene list

Phase I enzymes

ABP1, ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH1C, ADH4, ADH5, ADH6, ADH7, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1B1, ALDH2, ALDH3A1, ALDH3A2, ALDH3B1, ALDH3B2, ALDH4A1, ALDH5A1, ALDH6A1, ALDH7A1, ALDH8A1, ALDH9A1, AOX1, ARSA, CAT, CES1, CES2, CYB5R3, CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP20A1, CYP21A2, CYP24A1, CYP26A1, CYP26C1, CYP27A1, CYP27B1, CYP2A13, CYP2A6, CYP2A7, CYP2B6, CYP2B7P1, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2D7P1, CYP2E1, CYP2F1, CYP2J2, CYP2R1, CYP2S1, CYP39A1, CYP3A4, CYP3A43, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP46A1, CYP4A11, CYP4B1, CYP4F11, CYP4F12, CYP4F2, CYP4F3, CYP4F8, CYP4Z1, CYP51A1, CYP7A1, CYP7B1, CYP8B1, DHRS2, DPYD, EPHX1, EPHX2, FMO1, FMO2, FMO3, FMO4, FMO6P, GPX2, GPX4, GPX7, MPO, PON1, PON2, PON3, POR, SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, UROC1, VKORC1, XDH

Phase II enzymes

CARM1, CDA, COMT, GSR, GSS, GSTA1, GSTA2, GSTA3, GSTA4, GSTA5, GSTK1, GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTM3, GSTM4, GSTM5, GSTO1, GSTO2, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTT2, GSTZ1, HNMT, MGST1, MGST2, MGST3, NAT1, NAT2, NNMT, SULF1, SULT1A1, SULT1A2, SULT1A3, SULT1B1, SULT1C2, SULT1E1, SULT2A1, SULT2B1, SULT4A1, TPMT, UGT1A1, UGT1A10, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2A1, UGT2B10, UGT2B11, UGT2B15, UGT2B17, UGT2B28, UGT2B4, UGT2B7

Phase III drug transporters

ABCA1, ABCA11P, ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCA4, ABCA5, ABCA6, ABCA7, ABCA8, ABCB1, ABCB10, ABCB11, ABCB4, ABCB5, ABCB6, ABCB7, ABCB8, ABCB9, ABCC1, ABCC10, ABCC11, ABCC13, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, ABCC5, ABCC6, ABCC8, ABCC9, ABCD1, ABCD2, ABCD3, ABCD4, ABCE1, ABCF1, ABCF2, ABCF3, ABCG1, ABCG2, ABCG4, ABCG5, ABCG8, BSG, IL6ST, KCNJ11, SLC10A1, SLC10A2, SLC15A1, SLC15A2, SLC16A1, SLC16A3, SLC16A7, SLC19A1, SLC22A1, SLC22A10, SLC22A11, SLC22A12, SLC22A13, SLC22A14, SLC22A15, SLC22A16, SLC22A17, SLC22A18, SLC22A18AS, SLC22A2, SLC22A25, SLC22A3, SLC22A4, SLC22A5, SLC22A6, SLC22A7, SLC22A8, SLC22A9, SLC27A1, SLC28A1, SLC28A2, SLC28A3, SLC29A1, SLC29A2, SLC29A4, SLC2A4, SLC2A5, SLC47A1, SLC47A2, SLC5A12, SLC5A6, SLC6A6, SLC7A5, SLC7A8, SLCO1A2, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, SLCO1C1, SLCO2A1, SLCO2B1, SLCO3A1, SLCO4A1, SLCO4C1, SLCO5A1, SLCO6A1, TAP1, TAP2

Others (modifiers, regulators, etc.)

AHR, AHRR, ARNT, CABIN1, CAV1, CEBPA, CFTR, CHURC1, CREBBP, CRP, EAF2, EP300, EPS8L3, ESR1, ESR2, ESRRA, ESRRB, ESRRG, FOXA2, FOXA3, GPS2, HIF1A, HNF1, HNF4A, INSIG1, INSIG2, MGMT, MIF, NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3, NCOA6, NCOR1, NCOR2, NOS1, NOS2A, NOS3, NR0B2, NR1H2, NR1H3, NR1H4, NR1I2, NR1I3, NR2C1, NR2C2, NR2F1, NR2F2, NR3C1, NR3C2, NR5A2, NUDT8, PGRMC1, PGRMC2, PIAS2, PLG, PPARA, PPARBP, PPARD, PPARG, PPARGC1A, PRMT1, RARa, RNF40, RXRA, SIRT1, SQSTM1, STAT3, STK19, TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6, TRPC7, TRPM1, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPV4, TYMS, VDR, XRCC5

Start your project now

1 + 7 = ?